A rather obvious thing that will happen to beekeepers is that they will get stung. Generally this is no problem, although the first few stings that an individual receives can be painful, they are soon accepted as nothing more than a minor annoyance and an indication to take more care. The bees will only react by stinging if you or your actions appear to them as some sort of threat. They are very gentle creatures and I personally am rarely stung, even though in a given year I may handle many millions of them.
Anaphylaxis is very rare in the overall population, but is more frequent among beekeepers, their wives and other members of their family. All beekeepers should learn to recognise the symptoms of anaphylaxis, in case a bystander is stung and reacts badly.
Beekeeper's Dermatitis is caused by a reaction to propolis and is not readily recognised by many members of the medical profession and so this page contains as much information on the subject that I can gather. I have this problem myself, but it only became apparent after about 30 years of contact with propolis.
Beekeeper's back is not a complaint specific to beekeepers, but many beekeepers do have back problems... Due to heavy lifting or more appropriately, lifting with a bad stance.
Bee Fever is an affliction that is hard to cure, the best you can hope for is just to keep up the treatment and manipulation therapy. Once a person has contracted this disease they are destined to be a beekeeper for the rest of their lives. I happily subscribe to this beekeeper ailment!