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Papers and Theses, on Honey Bee Related Subjects

This collection of scientific papers, documents and theses, is on subjects that have a relation to honey bees. In some cases they may deal with non honey bee subjects, but will be for comparison purposes. Mostly they have been rewritten as web pages for screen presentation, rather than some of the obscure file types that they were originally published in. Content has not been edited, but additional items like translation of Americanisms will show as blue text.

Each paper is linked, from within the paragraph that gives a brief synopsis, by the title that the original author used.

The natural distribution of honeybee subspecies in Europe has been significantly affected by human activities during the last century. Non-native subspecies of honeybees have been introduced and propagated, so that native black honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera) populations lost their identity by gene-flow or went extinct. After previous studies investigated the remaining gene-pools of native honeybees in France and Spain, we here assess the genetic composition of eight northwest European populations of the black honeybee, using both mitochondrial (restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the intergenic transfer RNAleu-COII region) and nuclear (11 microsatellite loci) markers. Both data sets show that A. m. mellifera populations still exist in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, England, Scotland and Ireland, but that they are threatened by gene flow from commercial honeybees. Both Bayesian admixture analysis of the microsatellite data and DraI-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis of the intergenic region indicated that gene-flow had hardly occurred in some populations, whereas almost 10% introgression was observed in other populations. The most introgressed population was found on the Danish Island of Laeso, which is the last remaining native Danish population of A. m. mellifera and the only one of the eight investigated populations that is protected by law. We discuss how individual admixture analysis can be used to monitor the restoration of honeybee populations that suffer from unwanted hybridization with non-native subspecies.


The Aim of this project was to investigate the botanical characteristic of the Salix genera and to observe its value to wild life and to social insects in particular. It seeks to examine the times of flowering of the trees and the production of both pollen and nectar.

The activities of honey bees were easier to observe than those of 'wild 'social insects, and pollen was collected and examined for the flower source. The advice of experienced entomologists and beekeepers was taken and the results of the experiments and observations were presented as tables and charts. Evaluation and discussion of the results, was attempted.

Research into innovative environmental uses of willow, for example as Short Rotation Coppicing and phytoextraction of heavy metal pollution, was studied as a positive addition to the benefits of willow species to wildlife habitats.

A thesis submitted to the University of Glamorgan By
In candidature for Higher National Certificate in Environmental Management
May 2005

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 Originated... 10 August 2005, Revised... 21 May 2006, Upgraded... 22 September 2007, Robotic Changes... 07 December 2007,
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